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Those fractures were coated by sulphur sublimates and showed incandescence months before the paroxysm Fig. The paroxysm lasted more than two hours and its ending was revealed by a sharp decrease in volcanic tremor at The thickness of the lava flows was around one meter close to the vents, increasing at the very distal front of the flows.

The petrochemical features of the lava emitted do not differ from the high-K trachybasaltic lavas ordinarily produced by Etnean activity, except for a slightly higher Ca tenor and for the extremely low H2O content see Tab 2. One peculiar feature of this paroxysm is the newly opened fracture, characterized by the alignment of huge niches similar to avalanche scallops; two of which broke apart the SW flank of the SEC Fig. Moreover, a network of minor fractures, cutting the erupted products, accompanied the main niches Supplementary Fig.

A few days after the event January 2, , the emission of dense clouds of brown ash started from the SEC summit Supplementary Fig. This strombolian activity ended on 9 January. S5 data were used to: i explore and model the source of the ground deformation pattern preceding the paroxysm of 28 December ; ii explore and model the displacements following the paroxysm. S6b , located in the upper portion of the southern flank of the volcano, and by the summit station ECPN Supplementary Fig.

Supplementary Fig.

The ground deformation patterns in the period between 21 August—26 December and 27—29 December are shown in Fig. Between 27 and 29 December, displacements were observed only in the summit area Fig. Figure 3 Recorded red and grey arrows and modelled black arrows horizontal CGPS displacements for the periods a 21 August - 25 December , b 27—29 December Grey arrows were not considered in the modelling because the CGPS stations are on the eastern flank of Mt.

Etna, characterized by a southeastward displacement not directly related to volcanic activity 61 ; c,d the histograms show the recorded red bars and modelled black bars vertical displacements for each of the two phases respectively.

Full size image The deformation patterns of Fig. For the first period, we modelled an inflating pressure source, associated with a volume of 9. On 28 December the eruptive event occurred, right after which we observe a dramatic deformation of the summit area, lasting until 29 December Supplementary Fig. Full size table Figure 4 Surface a and vertical projection b of the analytical models of the deformation patterns.

Inflating pressure source 1 for the first period 21 August - 25 December and tensile dislocation 2 related to the 28 December event.

Full size image Our model differs from the one proposed in Gambino et al. Although most parameters are similar, our modelled source contains the area where seismic events occurred.

But the most important difference lies in the interpretation of the role that these syn-post eruptive deformations played see Discussion section. SO2 Flux In order to better constrain the eruptive event of 28 December , we have also examined the bulk SO2 flux released by the Etnean summit craters from the end of the previous eruptive event 15 August, to 09 January Fig.

It is worth mentioning that the SO2 flux recorded during the eruption was lower than the peaks recorded in November. This flux value is the maximum value of the time series and was measured in correspondence of the short but significant strombolian activity at the VOR, which lasted until 9 January.

Figure 5 Daily solid grey line and weekly black line bulk SO2 flux between 14 August and 09 January Solid boxes at the top of the graph indicate the Strombolian Str and lava fountain Ft activity occurring throughout the investigated period. The solid green and blue squares in the daily SO2 flux are the minimum of the time series and the onset of the 28 December eruptive episode, respectively.

Full size image Discussion Although the eruptive activity at Mt. Etna has prevalently been effusive, in the last few years the SEC has displayed a switch to short-lasting explosive eruptions. Since its formation as a pit crater in , the SEC has undergone an articulated growth 18 , mainly due to its explosive-oriented eruptive style, which strongly increased since 17 , 19 , Due to this intense activity in particular since , its crater morphology has dramatically changed 18 , with the lack of a proper deep chasm replaced instead by a shallow and flat hollow constellated of fumaroles.

The process behind this change has not been investigated yet; nevertheless, it must be considered that morphology on volcanoes is generally controlled by endogenous factors. As an example, a deep chasm within a crater is originated by the collapse, at the end of the eruption, of the magma filling the conduit.

However, in order to be literally drawn back and leave a conduit empty, the magma needs to be fluid enough. A useful analogy can be found in Ferlito et al. This behaviour was explained by invoking an in-conduit crystallization of microlites owing to magma undercooling in response of gas loss.

Similar conditions could have occurred at the SEC, as evidenced by the large gas emissions associated with paroxysms of these last years. One of these features relates to ground deformations, which consisted in only a moderate inflation powered by a source located at about 5 km b. Interesting considerations can be made by looking at the borehole strainmeter data 32 , which revealed variations of the strain field with opposite polarity and diverse magnitude two hours before and at the onset of the eruption , respectively.

We interpreted these variations as: 1 an earlier positive strain contraction , associated with the rapid vesiculation and pressurization of the plug of magma at the shallow level of the volcanic edifice; followed by 2 a negative strain dilatation , associated with removal of the plug. Noteworthy is the magnitude of the strain at the four stations Supplementary Fig. This behaviour testifies to a rapid decay of the measured volumetric strain, which can only be originated by a very shallow source, likely within the uppermost m of the Etnean edifice.

Figure 6 Strain vs. Distance a and vs.

Altitude difference b , between the SEC summit and the borehole dilatometers measuring stations the data are inferred from figure 8 in Bonaccorso et al. The grey lines indicate the contractional positive strain during the couple of hours preceding the eruptive event.

The black line represents the dilatational negative strain during the eruptive event. Full size image Such geophysical and geochemical features suggest that the 28 December eruption was not associated with fresh volatile-rich magma migrating from depth but, conversely, was related to the removal of a plug of semisolid and degassed magma placed in the uppermost portion of the Etnean plumbing system, probably after the previous eruptive event of August 34 , Publication date: October 27, First edition published under the title Infrastructure: A Field Guide to the Industrial Landscape.

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